If the steel is cooled such that the formation of pearlite by the short range diffusion of iron atoms is not possible, bainite can be produced. Many other additional elements may be present or added. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. Although many pairs of elements will mix together as solids, many pairs will not.  Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Crystal Structures Ferrite. It does not create a general softening of the product but only locally relieves strains and stresses locked up within the material. However, when medium carbon steels are alloyed with elements such as nickel, chromium and molybdenum, the development of equilibrium phases is suppressed and martensite can be formed with less drastic cooling, such as oil quenching. The smallest group of atoms which defines the atomic arrangement in a crystal is termed a crystal lattice. • Material properties generally vary with single crystal orientation (i.e., they are anisotropic), but properties are generally non-directional Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the introduction of the blast furnace and production of crucible steel. amorphous structures. Crystal structure and microstructure All steels are an alloy of iron and other carefully selected alloying elements. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iron oxides, results in an alloy (pig iron) that retains too much carbon to be called steel. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain-hardens to form a very hard skin which resists wearing. The longer the metal takes to cool the larger the crystals grow. Changes to the crystal structures/packing and interaction energy of a material can cause differences in its mechanical properties. Materials are made up of a wide variety of atomic structures.  A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period.  Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. During the 17th century it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm, Sweden. Pearlite is a phase mixture consisting of alternating platelets of ferrite and cementite (α + Fe3C), which grows by conversion from austenite. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted. (1998) "Electric Furnace Steelmaking", in, Steel Construction Manual, 8th Edition, second revised edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, 1986, ch. The austenite crystals undergo a transformation involving the shearing of atom planes over each other. This new walkway presented a modern & artistic type of structure integrated into architecture. , To inhibit corrosion, at least 11% chromium is added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as stainless steel. One of the hidden requirements of an #engineer is to know which material is appropriate for which application. Cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Today, approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots.