He embedded himself in a hospital setting and soon found that it was the organization and the nurse’s central place within it—the multiple loyalties, hierarchies of power, the tendency within systems to be slow to change and to impede individual practice—that was often a cause of nurses’ ethical dilemmas. Mills, & P.M. Schyve (eds). An effective ethical code for nursing practice must provide guidance on managing ethical problems that arise at the societal level, the organizational level, and the clinical level. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 43(2), 11-17. Unlike other provisions, Provision 8 had changed in a way that it had lost its original meaning and thus had a dual focus that needed to be unified and sharpened. More than 400 nurses volunteered; from these 15 were selected to serve on the Code Steering Committee (SC). (2015b). Thus, it is clear that the organizational ethics aspects of healthcare are important factors for nurses. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No02Man04 Key words: Ethics, code of ethics, nursing, professionTo practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession... Professional nursing is defined as âthe protection, promotion, and optimization of health aâ¦ Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. Chicago: Health Administration Press/Association of University Programs in Health Administration. Filerman, A.E. The Code is written by nurses to express their understanding of their professional commitment to society. Nurse researchers, policy makers, educators, consultants, administrators, ethicists, advanced practice nurses, and clinical nurses all encounter biomedically-related ethical problems every day (Moon, Taylor, McDonald, Hughes & Carrese, 2009; Ulrich et al., 2010). Recognizing that nursing practice extends from horizon to horizon—from the bedside to the classroom, from the executive suite to the laboratory bench—the 2015 Code continues to provide all nurses with a firm foundation for ethical practice, Beth Epstein, PhD, RN (1933). Email: [email protected]
Table 1 provides a timeline of the most recent Code revision process. This article has suggested several implications for nursing practice including consideration of the everyday nature of ethical concerns in nursing at multiple levels, the usefulness of the Code (ANA, 2015b) as a guide, and the importance of an inclusive and thorough process for revising the Code. In A.J.Davis, M.A. The authors of this OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing topic identify multiple aspects of nurses’ moral agency that allow nurses to respond to the ethical concerns in their work. The code is both practical and aspirational for nurses, outlining the non-negotiable aspects of the âprotection, promotion, and restoration of health and well-being.â Pain Management Nursing 13(3): 169-183. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2012.07.001. We would likely have great difficulty living productive lives if we constantly worried about our homes being ransacked or our lives being in danger. Nursing ethics is a branch of applied ethics that concerns itself with activities in the field of nursing. In particular, these DNPs can acquire the necessary personal characteristics and virtues, knowledge of ethical concepts, along with skills, such as mediation and collaboration to be leaders in ethics. With changes in the level of practice independence; advances in technology; societal changes; and expansion of nursing practice into advanced practice roles, research, education, health policy, and administration, the Code has been revised over time to introduce obligations to advance the profession and build and maintain a healthy work environment (ANA, 1976; ANA, 1985; ANA, 2001; ANA, 2015b). Retrived from www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics.page. Nurses participating in the revision process took advantage of technology for online committee meetings and discussions and online public comment periods to solicit feedback from nurses across the country. At the same time as the suggested code, ethics was on the minds of nurse faculty and administrators in terms of training and educating nursing students and practicing nurses (Crawford, 1926; Ethical Problems, 1926; Ethical Problems, 1933; Fowler, 1997). Fowler, M. In the first article, “Ethical Awareness: What It Is and Why It Matters” Aimee Milliken, like Komesaroff (1995), describes how ethical awareness entails the recognition that all nursing actions, including routine ones, can have an impact on patients. New issues had important ethical implications to address in the Code. Every day, nurses support each other to fulfill their ethical obligations to patients and the public, but in an ever-changing world there are increased challenges. Pavlish, C., Brown-Saltzman, K., Hersh, M., Shirk, M., & Rounkle, A-M. (2011). Are nurses refusing to participate in these surgical procedures, which can be deemed unethical because of the risk to both mother and infant? 23, No. Advancing the profession through research and policy by attending to informed consent, advocacy, and accountability of practice are examples of other professional areas of practice with potential ethical dilemmas that make the provisions of the Code a relevant nursing resource. Arnstein, P., Broglio, K., Wuhrman, E. & Kean, M.B. On a clinical level, ethical questions arise every day. Fields, Bronwyn E.; Whitney, Robin L.; Bell, Janice F. AJN, American Journal â¦ (1926). For decades, nurse scholars have identified and explored how the context of healthcare can constrain nurses’ moral responses, leading to moral distress. The American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics prohibits use of placebo except when the patient is fully informed (AMA, 2007). Retrieved from www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/about/icncode_english.pdf. Take some time to explore this collection of articles addressing ethical issues in nursing practice. However, in this case, there is an inkling of doubt because of the possibility of a placebo effect. In a similar way, all interactions nurses have with others also have the potential to be powerful. Most recently (2010-2014) she staffed the revision of the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements as content editor, revision coordinator and co-lead writer. Clearly, advocating will involve collaboration with a hesitant physician. Use of placebos in pain management. Examples include the Code of Medical Ethics, social workers’ Code of Ethics, and the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (AMA, 2014-2015; ANA, 2015b; National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 2008). For many professions, this is done with a code of ethics. Ethical dimensions in the health professions. The 1960 Code for Professional Nurses outlined 17 provisions beginning with the “fundamental responsibility…to conserve life, to alleviate suffering, and to promote health” and extending to accountability for practice and conduct, participation in research and “action on matters of legislation affecting nurses” (ANA, 1960, p. 1287) . Additionally, Provision 5 addresses preserving one’s own dignity and 5.4 more specifically notes the threat to one’s integrity that is done by deceiving patients and withholding information (ANA, 2015b). How and what to teach in nursing ethics. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America (2001). They also should be knowledgeable about the laws that govern nursing care and the ethical positions of professional nursing organizations. In May 2014, the edited draft was posted for public comment. It's a scary feeling knowing you must choose between two bad choices. In 1926, the ANA published a “suggested” code which provided the first outline of ethical behavior for nurses (ANA, 1926). Theoretically, she locates her work in feminist healthcare ethics, exploring the ethical dimensions of nursing work along with the ethical concerns that arise in home care and research. You are. (2015). Code of medical ethics, opinion 8.083: Placebo use in clincal practice. Thirteen years had passed since the previous Code revision. Fostering social justice: The possibility of a socially connected model of moral agency. Presidential commission for the study of bioethical issues. : Ethical dilemmas and nursing practice. It often requires a team of individuals to fully understand and resolve difficult ethical problems. Citation: Peter, E., (January 31, 2018) "Overview and Summary: Ethics in Healthcare: Nurses Respond" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. The revision process led to several significant changes in the 2015 Code of Ethics (ANA, 2015b). The agreement to live by rules may be externally imposed by laws and leaders or internally imposed by the common morality. American Journal of Nursing 68(12): 2581-2585. Overall, the document’s language has been updated. Examples of such queries may include discussion about whether access to healthcare is a right or a privilege; how to protect research participants from harm; the most fair method for resource distribution during an Ebola crisis; or the inappropriateness of punitive measures against pregnant women who use drugs and alcohol. Retrieved from http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000441705. Analysis of the moral habitability of the nursing work environment. Hoskins, Grady, and Ulrich, in their article entitled “Ethics Education in Nursing: Instruction for Future Generations of Nurses,” review the literature examining the presence, nature, and impact of nursing ethics education. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, November 19, 2020 Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine , November 19, 2020 The journal editors invite you to share your response to this OJIN topic addressing Ethics in Healthcare either by writing a Letter to the Editor or by submitting a manuscript which will further the discussion of this topic which has been initiated by these introductory articles. The ICN code of ethics for nurses. Fowler, M. (1992). Comments on the first seven provisions and interpretive statements were not sufficiently compelling to warrant a substantive revision. Nightingale pledge. Provision 1 of the Code states that the nurse is obligated to act with compassion and to respect the dignity and autonomy of each patient (ANA, 2015b). In the revision of the 2001 Code (ANA, 2001), greater use of technology resulted in a single onsite meeting. The agreement to live by rules may be externally imposed by laws and leaders or internally imposed by the common morality. When the next call is made, take time to offer your suggestions to ensure the Code continues to remain a relevant resource for practice. New York: Praiger. Ulrich, C., O’Donnell, P, Taylor, C., Farrar, A., Danis, M. & Grady, C. (2007). Nursing Ethics is an international journal that takes a practical approach to this complex subject and relates each topic to the working environment.The articles on ethical and legal issues are written in a comprehensible style and official documents are analysed in a user-friendly way. She was a member of the Minnesota Nurses Association ethics committee from 1997-2002 and the Ethics Advisory Council of the Oncology Nurse Society from 1994-1996. Walker, M.U. Nursing ethics shares many principles with medical ethics, such as beneficence, non-maleficence and respect for autonomy. Nurse practice acts in many states incorporate the Code of Ethics. Much like McBride and colleagues, they maintain that standardized clinical pathways along with organizational and medical dominance can constrain nurses’ ethical judgment and action. Pauly, B., Varcoe, C., Storch, J. The nurses’ voice in social and health policy should be strengthened to add to the unified efforts on behalf of all in the profession. In a study of the ethical issues encountered by nurses, Ulrich et al. Mills, A.E. New York: Pearson/Longman. Elizabeth Peter, PhD, RN Selected potentially helpful online resources are listed in Table 2. Table 1: Timeline of the Revision Process for the 2015 Code, Initial discussion of process for Code review, Online survey comment period and analysis of survey findings, Recommendation from the Ethics Advisory Board that the Code be revised approved by ANA President, Code Steering Committee established to draft the revision, Draft revision posted for public comment; suggestions evaluated, Approved by ANA Board of Directors for publication. Citizens are not morally required to keep in confidence information they hear about another. (1960). Registered nurses’ perceptions of moral distress and ethical climate. (2007). (2007). Sustaining hope as a moral competency in the context of aggressive care. The following fictional case, adapted from White and Zibelman (2005) illustrates a bedside nurse’s dilemma that has both clinical, patient-level aspects and organizational aspects. (1998). Email: [email protected]
White, B.C. The international Editorial Board ensures the selection of a wide range of high quality articles of global significance. Code of ethics with interpretive statements. (2012). Journal of Nursing Scholarship , 49 (4), 445-455. doi:10.1111/jnu.12297 The summary report of this analysis included recommendations to revise the 2001 Code (ANA, 2001) for the following reasons: After recommendations were accepted, the ANA website, NursingWorld, posted a call with an invitation to participate in the revision. Moral development: Advances in research and theory. The Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements by the American Nurses Association (ANA) is the presiding code of ethics for nurses in the U.S. The Code applies to other areas of nursing practice as well, such as nursing education, research, and policy making. The articles on ethical and legal issues are written in a comprehensible style and official documents are analysed in a user-friendly way. In other words, how nurses respond in everyday interactions with patients and other healthcare providers can have considerable impact. Citation: Peter, E., (January 31, 2018) "Overview and Summary: Ethics in Healthcare: Nurses Respond" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. The preface and afterword required revision for clarity to help the reader by providing a framework for the Code. The Center is committed to addressing the complex ethical and human rights issues confronting nurses and designing activities and programs to increase the ethical competence and human rights sensitivity of nurses. Hamric, A.B. New York: Oxford University Press. She authored the first ethics textbook for nurses in the United States and set the groundwork for the American Nurses Associationâs Code of Ethics used today. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are not expected to be able to resolve complex ethical problems alone, using only a code of ethics. A number of American studies have identified significant inconsistencies and gaps in the amount and type of nursing education provided and a lack of agreement on core objectives and educational standards. Citation: Epstein, B., Turner, M., (May 31, 2015) \"The Nursing Code of Ethics: Its Value, Its History\" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. On a policy or societal level, broad questions are asked. Ethics in nursing are very pivotal and have a direct relationship with the quality of clinical care and nursing competence (Sayar, Tahmasebi, Azodi, Tamimi, & Jahanpour, 2018). Nursing Code of Ethics. Moral distress among healthcare professionals: Report of an institution-wide survey. (2014-2015). 23, No. She attended the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN for a BS and PhD in nursing, Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, CA for an MS in nursing and Ball State University in Muncie, IN for an MA in counseling psychology. Chicago: Health Administration Press/Association of University Programs in Health Administration. In G.L. In their article, “Identifying and Addressing Ethical Issues with Use of Electronic Health Records,” McBride, Tietze, Robichaux, Stokes, and Weber contend that the use of EHRs can result in untended consequences that can lead to patient safety concerns and moral distress when they involve clinical decision support (CDS). The Code can provide some guidance, but some weighing and balancing of the different provisions is necessary. In the early 1900s, Isabel Hampton Robb’s text, Nursing's Ethics for Hospital and Private Use described the obligations of the nurse to the patient, physician, institution, self, and profession and the creativity needed to find solutions to problems and provide good nursing care (Robb, 1926). The nurse wanted me up and walking after the surgery (âPromoting Nursing Studentsâ Ethical Development in the Clinical Setting,â Teaching for Practice, November 2017). In the 1980s, Chambliss conducted a sociological study of hospital nurses to better understand the kinds of ethical issues that arose (Chambliss, 1996). (1985). Citation: Epstein, B., Turner, M., (May 31, 2015) "The Nursing Code of Ethics: Its Value, Its History" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The use of technology made this recent revision process more effective and efficient than in previous times. New York: Routledge. Managerial ethics in healthcare: A new perspective. Frick S, Uehlinger DE, Zuercher Zenklusen RM. (2004). Pain Management Nursing, 12(4): 225-229. Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Conversely, this may undermine Mr. Logan’s trust in the physician as well as the nurse (Provision 1.2: Relationships with patients). 20, No. Research hospital policies and legal information related to the concern under review. 2, Manuscript 4. To live in society, for example, we are obligated to not kill or hurt one another or to take from others what is not ours. Second, the provisions were reduced from 17 to a more manageable 10. A suggested code. Standards. Elizabeth Peter is a Professor in Nursing at the Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing and a member of the Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, Canada. Other broad changes include increased emphasis on nursing leadership; renewed emphasis on the inclusion of nurses in all roles and in all settings; and strengthening of the nurse’s voice in social and health policy and of the nurse’s role in global health. Their work highlights the thinking of the time, that is, that character was a significant factor in determining right action. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45 (6), 311-318. Fowler, M. (1997). Referring to interactions between patients and physicians, Komesaroff (1995) argues that no matter how minute, these are of continual ethical significance and can have a powerful and lasting impact on patients. The formulaic alerts of CDS can be in conflict with the judgment of clinical teams, requiring nurses and others to override these alerts. (ed.) Nursing is concerned with health, whereas medicine focuses on cure. Moral contexts. 10. Participate in the ongoing revision of the nursing Code. & O’Brien-Pallas, L.L. That is, the saline injection may induce some analgesic effect even though it is not a pain medication. Her scholarship reflects her interdisciplinary background in nursing, philosophy, and bioethics. First, prior to this revision, the provisions were simply listed with little, if any, interpretation. The utility of the Code. Standards of Professional Performance include activities related to Nursing Ethics, Nursing Education, Evidence-based Practice and Research, Quality of Practice, Communication, Leadership etcâ¦ American Nurses Association. To consider ethical issues, some level of guidance about how to do so should be in place. The Code can provide direction for multiple levels of direct and indirect care. Peter, E.H., Macfarlane, A.V. Nurses acted in several ways to address these problems, such as communicating and speaking up, advocating and collaborating, being present and empathetic, and being informed (Pavlish et al., 2011). These rules are not just in our own best interest (not to be killed, for instance), but they promote the flourishing of our society. The ethics of everyday practice: Healthcare environments as moral communities. Nurses in every role and every setting were invited to, and did, participate in the process. American Nurses Association. (2009). In the final article by Kelly and Porr, “Ethical Nursing Care Versus Cost Containment: Considerations to Enhance RN Practice,” the ethical implications of working in the restructured Canadian healthcare system are examined. Whitehead, P.B., Herbertson, R.K., Hamric, A.B., Epstein, E.G. To practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession, such as an accreditation process for education, a rigorous system for certification and licensure, and a relevant code of ethics. In Mr. Logan’s case, the defining question is, does deceiving the patient provide any benefit or prevent any risk? New York: Dutton. She emphasizes that nurses must have awareness that any action in conflict with the nursing goals or in violation of the principles of bioethics (i.e., respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice) places nurses at risk for acting unethically. Article published May 31, 2015, Substance Use Disorders and Related Concerns, The 200th Birthday of Florence Nightingale, Addressing Social Determinants of Health: Progress and Opportunities, Translational Research: From Knowledge to Practice, ethics in society, professions, and nursing, National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 2008, Moon, Taylor, McDonald, Hughes & Carrese, 2009, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, Peter, Macfarlane, & O’Brien-Pallas, 2004, Whitehead, Herbertson, Hamric, Epstein & Fisher, 2015, Fassler, Meissner, Schneider, & Linde, 2010, www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Content/standards.content?menu=Practice&lastmenu, www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics.page, www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion8083.page, www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements, www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics-For-Nurses.html, www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/WhereWeComeFrom/FlorenceNightingalePledge.aspx, www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/about/icncode_english.pdf, http://socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp, Nurses in the Know: The History and Future of Advance Directives, Cornerstone Documents and Milestones: The Changing Landscape of Public Health Nursing 1950 - 2015, Cornerstone Documents, Milestones, and Policies: Shaping the Direction of Public Health Nursing 1950-2015, Historical Perspectives on an Expanded Role for Nursing, Cornerstone Documents, Milestones, and Policies: Shaping the Direction of Public Health Nursing 1890-1950, Best Practices for Developing Specialty Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice, Development and Implementation of Cornerstone Documents to Support Nursing Practice in Cambodia. ANA: Washington, DC. Examples of those most common include errors and near misses, delegation, end-of-life care, use of technology and fatigue. Martha retired in January 2006 from Active Duty with the Air Force after 30 years. Filerman, A.E. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4): 385-295. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2011.01422.x. To practice competently and with integrity, today's nurses must have in place several key elements that guide the profession... Professional nursing is defined as “the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations” (ANA, 2010, p. 10). Critical Care Medicine 35: 422-429. A “Tentative Code” in 1940 (ANA, 1940) described nursing as a profession and outlined many provisions similar to those in the 1926 suggested code, including framing the provisions in terms of relationships to patient, colleagues, and profession. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association Publishing. Several leading contemporary bioethicists assert that as vulnerable human beings, we have realized the need to abide by a common set of moral rules, the common morality, which allow us to live and flourish without constant worry of destruction (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009; Gert, 2004). (2004). Lying to the patient, watching him suffer, and not involving him in his plan of care achieve neither goal. American society for pain management nursing position statement: Pain management in patients with substance use disorders. These included the widespread use of social media and resultant threats to privacy; use of emerging technologies throughout healthcare; growing importance of inter-professional collaboration; a stronger and more direct consideration of social justice as a core value; and an inclusion of global health responsibilities of the profession. Finally, the article provides implications for practicing nurses to assure that this document is a dynamic, useful resource in a variety of healthcare settings. At times, nurses believe that they cannot respond adequately to the ethical issues that they encounter because of their enormity and nurses’ responsibility to continue to care for patients despite the obstacles. Retrieved from: www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/WhereWeComeFrom/FlorenceNightingalePledge.aspx. Her responsibilities included representing the DoD as an ex-officio member of the Secretary's (HHS) Advisory Committee for Genetics, Health and Society, reviewing policies related to many aspects of healthcare and developing ethics programs and ethics expertise throughout the Air Force Medical Service. American Nurses Association position statements on ethics and human rights. Code for nurses. For example, terms such as “technology,” “social media,” “genetics,” “incivility in the workplace,” “pain and suffering,” and “evidence informed practice” have been added. ...the organization and the nurse’s central place within it... are often a cause of nurses’ ethical dilemmas. This development of competency typically goes beyond what is can be learned in classrooms, but can be learned in clinical practice particularly with good mentorship and support. Beth Epstein, PhD, RN is an Associate Professor of Nursing at the University of Virginia (UVA) School of Nursing and is also a member of the faculty of the Center for Bioethics and Humanities at the UVA School of Medicine in Charlottesville, VA. She attended the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY for her BS in Biochemistry and then UVA for her MS in Pharmacology, BSN, and PhD in Nursing. Piper, L. (2011). More recent literature about organizational ethics and culture has explored the hospital ethical climate and the culture of quality and safety, as well as shifts in financial concerns that influence professional practice (Austin, 2007; Engelhard, 2014; Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2001; Mills, 2014; Peter, Macfarlane, & O’Brien-Pallas, 2004). American Journal of Nursing 60(9): 1287. "The Third Reich, Nursing, and AJN" appears in the same issue and led me to ponder nursing ethics in regard to these topics. Changes in the 2015 Code of Ethics for Nurses. (1968). 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