One cannot engage in reconstructing their environment without both of these attributes working together. " A positive school climate helps people feel socially, emotionally and physically safe in schools. Environmental variables include the adequacy of the school setting, the maintenance and infrastructure of the building, and the accessibility and allocation of educational resources.. A positive school climate reflects a school’s “norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures.”(02) Social-emotional learning (SEL) supports a positive school climate. When students cooperate, it is evident that their learning is increased, and they develop a positive attachment to school. When a school community has a positive climate, it will experience a stronger sense of community This Comprehensive School Climate Inventory (CSCI) is a tool that can help schools to determine where they stand in terms of climate. School climate has also been linked to behavioral problems within the school, such as bullying, delinquency, and aggressive behavior.  Because of the social nature of learning, the social identities of the teacher and each of the students is important and influences every interaction in the classroom. , According to this theory, delinquency occurs when an individual's feelings of attachment towards others, commitment to current or future activities, involvement (i.e., time spent) in various activities, and commitment to the beliefs/moral value system of society are weakened. Students' race and ethnicity can have an influence on their perception of the school's climate. The focus of this model is on identifying protective factors in a child's environment (e.g., supportive relationships) that promote healthy adjustment and reduce negative outcomes, despite the presence of risk. They are, however, intertwined; a school cannot address or improve one without examining the other. These dimensions are: safety, teaching and learning (academic climate), relationships (community climate), and the environment. The interplay of these factors reduces the likelihood of deviant behavior. It's the interaction between satisfaction and productivity for everyone in the school. The unique needs of the students and school community are used to inform school improvement goals. Hear from one of our experts on the various factors that influence climate and culture, including MTSS. It includes students', parents' and school personnel's norms, beliefs, relationships, teaching and learning practices, as well as organizational and structural features of the school. In a study of students' exposure to adverse school building conditions and absenteeism, researchers found that student absenteeism was associated with visible mold and poor ventilation, among other factors. Scientific research must be used to inform curriculum, instruction, student supports, and interventions. Principals have a lot of responsibility and only so many hours in the day, and they need clear, consistent signals as well as support for shifting their focus to improving school climate as their primary responsibility. It also reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures, according to the National School Climate Center . School climate reflects the physical and psychological aspects of the school that are more susceptible to change and that provide the preconditions necessary for teaching and learning to take place. School culture, on the other hand, is determined by the values, shared beliefs, and behavior A positive school climate helps people feel socially, emotionally and physically safe in schools. It is composed of three factors: leadership, teaching and learning, and professional development.  When students perceive their classroom rules, school discipline, and overall school safety as fair, they are less likely to experience feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression (Grapham et al., 2006; Ozer & Weinstein, 2004). For instance, poor relationships with students and colleagues and low parental and community involvement are related to emotional exhaustion (burnout) in teachers. , When students perceive that their school has a strong sense of solidarity and belonging, they are more likely to intervene or report when a peer engages in risk activities.  For example, the severity of a student's mental health problems can increase over time if classroom conditions do not improve.  Research studies have also shown that reductions in student behavioral problems, aggression, and victimization are associated with positive relationships among school staff and peers. School climate is about building a sense of collective efficacy. , As part of the school climate improvement process, these measures can be used to highlight a school's areas of strength and areas in need of improvement. Healthy student development and learning environments are promoted through the implementation of strength- and risk-based practices and programs. It is a critical determinant of the ability of people in the school to focus on the tasks of teaching and learning. School climate improvement is a five-stage continuous process: preparation, assessment, planning for improvement, implementation and evaluation. For instance, environmental variables such as classroom layout and activity schedules can influence how safe students feel and how well they perform in school. , A positive school climate is also important for student achievement. Although it is difficult to provide a concise definition for school climate, most researchers agree that it is a multidimensional construct that includes physical, social, and academic dimensions.  These findings highlight the importance of considering the perspective of students from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds when trying to improve school climate for all.  When this external motivation to conform to others and the internal motivation to succeed tie together, this theory of being influenced by an environment come into play.  A negative school climate is also associated to teachers having more feelings of low personal accomplishment, more cynicism, and depersonalization.. School climate is the collective perception of how well a school provides suitable conditions for learning. "School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is the feel of the school (the schools’ attitude), the behaviors and points of view exhibited and experienced by students, teachers and other stakeholders. How your students, staff, and parents view your school influences success, both immediately and in the long-term.  It proposes that individuals have ultimate control over their own environments, altering and modifying to their needs, however, this is only possible through self-directed actions that combine biological and environmental attributes. Several research studies highlight the link between student achievement and resources such as teacher education and experience, class size, teacher to student ration, school facilities, classroom materials, and financial expenditures..  For instance, in a study that examined adolescents' perceptions of several dimensions of school climate, researchers emotional support from teachers and the promotion of autonomy and discussion were linked to fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents. It can also be assessed more directly by gathering information from members of the school.. There are many factors that contribute to a positive school culture and climate.  In addition, school climate factors can influence teachers' mental health. School climate is a broad, multifaceted concept that involves many aspects of the student’s educational experience. Explicit teaching of social-emotional competencies allows children and adults to “acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and … School climate refers to the overarching and pervasive norms, policies, relationships, and values that help define a school's character. , Studies have shown that school climate can directly affect students' mental health and social-emotional well-being. For example, here are two definitions of school climate taken from the literature: "The physical and psychological aspects of the school that provide the preconditions necessary for teaching and learning to take place" (Tableman, 2004, p. 2). Principals’ roles and responsibilities need to be updated to emphasize responsibility for healthy school climate and teacher leadership as the critical vehicle for achieving it. School Climate School climate involves more rhon staff morale. For instance, a survey of American middle and high school students conducted in 2013 found that more than half the students who identified as gay, bisexual, lesbian, or transgender felt unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation, and more than a third felt unsafe because of their gender expression. A strong bond with the school community strengthens students' attachment to the school and encourages compliance to school norms.  Research has shown that people have the natural tendency to affiliate with others. Action planning, intervention, and program implementation are driven by both quantitative (e.g., survey) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, focus groups) data, with the goal of continuously improving school climate. Another study also conducted with middle school students found that students from a Hispanic/Latino background felt that relationships with teachers played a bigger role in their perception of community climate than relationships with students. This theory outlines four systems of operations including a microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem, where the self is microsystem and school is part of the mesosystem. The Initiative guides schools through this process offering a multi-faceted approach along with tools and resources to help make the changes sustainable. Additionally, declines in school climate were linked to declines in students' psychological adjustment. Creating a positive, safe and supportive school environment requires schools to identify a framework for understanding school climate, measure the climate to identify areas for improvement, and develop a strategy to implement improvements. School climate is “the quality and character of school life – fosters children’s development, learning and achievement (NSCC, 2007, p. 2). All humans need to feel safe socially, mentally, and physically. Therefore, students living in a cooperative, helpful class are more likely to feel identity safe as they develop a sense of belonging and contribute to their class community.  Research has shown that when teachers perceive themselves as efficacious, the school has effective principal leadership, and relationships between students and peers are positive, student standardized test scores, GPA, and grades are higher. For example, setting appropriate academic expectations, promoting supportive teacher-student relationships, and creating a safe and secure environment where students' feel comfortable taking academic risks, all play a role in student development. This capacity to work together has been a hallmark of humanity and the basis for building a civil society.  The promotion of a positive school climate is a general process that varies based on an individual school's strengths and weaknesses across different dimensions. For example, growing up in poverty is considered a risk factor.  For instance, a study collected information from African American and white middle school students found differences in their perception of racial climate in their school. For example, in a study of elementary student achievement in reading and mathematics, positive teacher characteristics such as setting high but achievable goals, believing in students, and commitment to students' academic success was associated with higher standardized test scores.  These relationships have been found among students in kindergarten to grade 12. Through the school improvement process, policies and procedures pertaining to the school learning environment, as well as operational infrastructure to facilitate the collection of data, effective planning, implementation, evaluation, and sustainability, are strengthened. School Climate is the way the school environment functions to nurture students' physical, mental, and emotional well-being. They are ordered based on the scientific research that has supported them. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is the collective perception of how well a school provides suitable conditions for learning. It can also be used to assess changes in school climate over time. For example, positive school climate is associated to higher academic performance, better mental health, and less bullying. For example, both lower student and teacher reports of behavioral problems have been documented in schools where teachers provide feedback on students' homework, assist in student goal-achievement, and encourage students' commitment to academic success. There is no consensus on the definition or dimensions of school climate. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) bio-ecological framework suggests that human development occurs through the complex, reciprocal interactions that an individual has with others and the surrounding environment.  More depth of this concept can be referenced in the bioecological model. Professional Development and SEL Coaching, School Climate Assessment and Improvement Process, Is the sum total of the behaviors and interactions of all adults and children, their attitude and norms, and the extent to which the school is safe, supportive, healthy, engaging, inspiring, and challenging for all (New Jersey School Health and Climate Coalition), Is significantly impacted by the leadership style of the school administrator, Are places where positive, healthy, and respectful behavior is the norm and the school is well-organized and managed, Are places where community-wide priorities, school policies and procedures are driven by positive and shared values such as respect, the importance of staff and student voice, collaboration, fostering success for all students, equity, acceptance, Are led by servant leaders committed to inclusive leadership and fostering success, health and well-being of all students and staff. - Georgia Partnership for Excellence in Education The National School Climate Center defines school climate as “the quality and character of school life” that is based on the “patterns of students’, parents’, and school personnel’s experiences of school life.” While school âcultureâ and âclimateâ are often used interchangeably, these two terms are distinct. The phrase school climate “refers to the quality and character of school life… [it] is based on patterns of students’, parents’ and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures.” To learn about climate change, you first must know what climate is. Stakeholders include not only school personnel and students, but also families and community members. It also includes the school's connectedness, respect for diversity, and partnerships with other members of the community. For example, if the teacher of a classroom has a confident and intelligent persona then the students are more likely to portray these same characteristics in the classroom. School climate is a group phenomenon that reflects the school community’s norms, goals and values, and school climate emerges based on ways in which students, parents and school staff experience school life.  School climate can be assessed indirectly through measures such as student attendance, suspensions, teacher turnover, or student mobility.  Therefore, African American, female, and lower income students have a more negative perception of the racial climate than white, middle class, and male students.  However, many students do not feel safe in schools. , The dimensions of school climate also affect teachers significantly. It includes students', parents' and school personnel's norms, beliefs, relationships, teaching and learning practices, as well as organizational an…  If students are absent from school, academic achievement can be affected. The feelings and attitudes that are elicited by a school’s environment are referred to as school climate. school climate as a strategy for dropout prevention, and the U.S. Department of Education recommends school climate reform as an evidence-based strategy to …  In the context of school climate, the fit between students' psychological needs and the school environment plays a role in students' motivation for academic success. School Climate School climate refers to the quality and character of school life, and is based on patterns of student, parent, and staff experiences and perceptions of school life. For school climate improvements to be successful,  Improving school climate can be used as a preventative approach to reduce disruptive behavior and improve attendance, achievement, and student and parent satisfaction with school.  In addition, some student characteristics also affect their perception of school climate. More often than not, schools have to examine many of those factors from different perspectives in order to initiate change. There are several theories of school climate described in the research literature.  For example, a higher incidence of conflict in schools is linked to a higher rate of childhood mental health disorders. School climate improvement can be defined as an intentional, strategic, collaborative, transparent, and coordinated effort to make school learning environments stronger.  Research suggests that engaging all members of the community is crucial for successful school improvement efforts. Students are affected behaviorally and emotionally by every encounter they have in the classroom. However, many factors linked to school climate have been found to affect teacher turnover rates. School Climate encompasses a school’s overall culture. When gathering information about school climate, it is recommended to gather information from multiple perspectives (e.g., teachers, administrators, students, etc.). This page was last edited on 29 May 2020, at 06:40. Therefore, having behavior problems, being held back a grade, coming from a single-parent family, or having a different ethnic background can all influence a student's perception of school climate.  Psychological resilience has been studied since the 1970s and continues to grow in research. Academics. Information about school climate can be collected in many ways; however, surveys are the most common method used by researchers (92%). , According to this theory, behavior, emotions, and thoughts are influenced by personal characteristics and the surrounding environment.  Conducting interviews and focus groups are other ways to collect information on school climate, with an estimated 8% of research studies making use of these methods.  Many assessment tools and interventions have therefore been developed to help school in the climate improve process.  An example of this method of measurement is visiting elementary schools to rate school design patterns of outside space and the condition of bathroom facilities. … A culture that is created by the beliefs, attitudes, stated and unstated norms that shape and influence every aspect of how a school functions. , There is also a relationship between school resource allocation and student achievement.  Feeling safe in school influences students' learning and their general development. School climate is the overall quality and character of school life, including teaching and learning practices, organizational structures, norms and values, and relationships. 5 How Are Bullying and School Climate Related to Children’s Learning and Development? , Mental health and social-emotional well-being, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Urie Bronfenbrenner and Child Development", "Urie Bronfenbrenner's Theory of Human Development: Its Evolution From Ecology to Bioecology", "Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding", "Development during adolescence: The impact of stage environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families", "Students' perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: Associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment", "The impact of school building conditions on student absenteeism in upstate New York", "The trajectories of adolescents' perceptions of school climate, deviant peer affiliation, and behavioral problems during the middle school years", "Code of silence: students' perceptions of school climate and willingness to intervene in a peer's dangerous plan", "Recognizing community voice and a youth-led schoolâcommunity partnership in the school climate improvement process", "School climate: perceptual differences between students, parents, and school staff", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=School_climate&oldid=959529443, Articles with too few wikilinks from October 2019, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from October 2019, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A collaborative, democratic decision-making process that involves all stakeholders. In the context of school climate, individual behaviors are shaped by the school environment, in which each child is embedded.  In a study of middle school adolescents' perceptions of school climate and its effect on psychological health, researchers found that dimensions of school climate (safety, relationships, connectedness, sense of belonging, etc.) School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. For instance, a study comparing parents', teachers', and students' perceptions of school climate found that students reported worse ratings of safety and connectedness than the adults. Click on a category to view materials. Most students are not necessarily exposed to physical violence, but many students are exposed to social, emotional, and intellectual violence. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School Strike for Climate!  However, the factors that shape school climate are often grouped into four main dimensions. These stakeholders have different roles and perspectives (e.g., teacher, bus driver, administration, maintenance staff, etc.). , The physical layout, size, and material resources of a school also affect school climate. Schools with a positive climate: Are places where positive, healthy, and respectful behavior is the norm and the school is well-organized and managed Offering school personnel opportunities to learn as teams or to build learning communities so they help each other obtain, improve, and retain the skills and knowledge needed to do their jobs competently.  A positive school climates therefore means feeling physically and emotional safe, and having clear and consistent rules to maintain order and discipline. Teacher retention, or getting teachers to stay in the same school for many years, is an important issue in many schools.  A negative school climate can also make existing social-emotional difficulties worse, and these effects can be long-term. Structural features of the school, such as the temperature and age of the building, can affect student performance and school attendance. and psychological and emotional health declined over three years. , Research findings have also shown that a negative school climate can have detrimental effects on students' psychological and social-emotional well-being, leading to mental health problems. School climate is often thought of as “how a school feels”; that is, whether it feels safe and supportive for students, staff, and families.  School climate plays a role in student development through the quality of interactions with others. , Academic climate refers to the teaching and learning practices promoted in the school. The term “school culture” is often used interchangeably with “school climate” and “school environment,” but the general meaning of all terms are students', parents' and school personnel's experience of school life and its associated Humans have the tendency to conform to others.  The quality of a schools' climate is important for promoting students' commitment and involvement in academic activities. Frequent data collection should occur to evaluate and further develop the school improvement process.  Each dimension is discussed in detail below. , Sexual orientation can also have an important effect on students' experiences in school. School boards are required to administer school climate surveys to their students, parents and school staff at least once every two years and, as outlined in Policy/Program Memorandum No. For example, the structure and condition of the school, the use of specific school practices (e.g., disciplinary), and the interpersonal relationships between students and teachers, all play a role in influencing student development.. School Climate & Culture 5 and decreases in internalizing and externalizing problems (Suldo, McMahon, Chappel, & Loker, 2012). It has been described as "the heart and soul of the school ... that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, and an administrator to love the school and to look forward to being there each school day.  This emphasizes the importance of gathering information from different informants when assessing school climate.  Adults from non-Western cultures often identify children's attention to and ability to copy adults actions as a social learning strategy and a sign of intelligence. The community aspect of school climate refers to the quality of relationships within a school.  A high-quality academic environment within the school can reduce behavioral problems. Another area on which school climate has a positive effect is academic achieve-ment school belonging, respect for student opinions, and supportive relationships) are factors directly related in student psychological functioning. School Climate Improvement Action Guide for Working With Students 3 Engage Stakeholders in School Climate Improvements Improving school climate is a schoolwide endeavor. The physical dimension includes: It has been described as "the heart and soul of the school ... that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, and an administrator to love the school and to look forward to being there each school day." School Climate is an overarching experience or “feel” of the school. The School Culture and Climate Initiative is part of the Center for Human and Social Development at Saint Elizabeth University, an IRS-recognized 501(c)3 non-profit organization. These school practices must also be based on sound cognitive, social-emotional, and ecological theories of youth development. School climate is defined as a mixture of beliefs, values and behaviors of students, teaching staff, leaders and parents, level of independence, lidership styles and job satisfaction.  A risk factor refers to anything that increases a child's likelihood of experiencing a negative outcome in the future.  The survey suggests that LGBT students' ethnicity also affects their perception of school safety. A positive school climate can also help students coping with social-emotional issues to develop resiliency. , The quality of relationships between members of a school (teachers, students, and administrators) has an influence on students' behavior and achievement. Positive school climate is related to many positive student outcomes.  Another, less common, method is the use of observational reports and ratings of school climate. The relationship between a student and their teacher affects their engagement in the classroom, self-esteem, and grades. That culture deeply informs the day-to-day experiences of students in their school environment. Environmental factors affect how students view themselves as active learners within the classroom.  According to the National School Climate Center, an effective school climate improvement process is one that engages all stakeholders in six key practices: In schools, obtaining an accurate picture of a climate is an essential component for improving the learning environment. All Learning Is Social and Emotional: Helping Students Develop Essential Skills for the Classroom and Beyondwith Nancy Frey (February 28, 2019)  Many aspects linked to a positive school climate such as the ones described above (e.g. In contrast, student relationships was a higher priority for Asian and white students. NSCC defines school climate as the quality and character of school life. School climate and culture can impact a student's learning ability. Many factors can affect the quality and character of school life.  According to the National School Climate Council, a sustainable, positive school climate promotes students' academic and social development. School climate has been defined as “the physical and psychological aspects of the school that are more susceptible to change and that provide the preconditions necessary for teaching and learning to take place” (Tableman, 2004). Young people are taking to the streets to demand urgent action on climate change. For instance, poor support from administration, student discipline problems, and not feeling they can contribute to decision making in the school are all conditions that are linked to poor teacher retention. EducationWorld invites you to explore the following articles related to school climate.